Monday, August 3, 2020

VPLS.US 10/24/2012 10.10.5.1 & 10.10.5.2

http://vpls.us/?p=838 Wed, 24 Oct 2012 23:36:30 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=838


is this question valid?
A computer with a host IP address of 10.10.5.1 sends a data packet with a destination, IP address of 10.10.5.2. A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 is being used. Determine whether the packet stays in the LAN or is sent to the gateway.



Of course any question is valid. But is it a good question, is probably a better question.

So that question “WAS” pretty simple in 1999. It stays on the “LAN” however that LAN could have been separated by as many as three layer 2 hops. So from a Layer 3 perspective they would be local to each other. Any traffic destined as described above wouldn’t have to go up to an intelligent device to “route” the traffic but it could be “switched” to it’s end destination. The traffic would not cross IP Broadcast domains, but could cross multiple collision domains, depending of if it was crossing a hub or a switch. But, I guess there probably aren’t any hubs around today.


So in the old days, it probably behaved like the question asker was asking.


today? Well maybe not so much. If that same set of devices were placed into a Virtual Private LAN Service that were spread between Los Angeles and London, and the one computer .1 arp’d to get the MAC address of the other computer
the .2 to send it a frame of data, the traffic would flow between California and London to get the physical MAC address of the .2 computer. All of that was “Officially” and technically to the letter of the question I suppose it would be on a LAN. However that LAN is spanning across North America and the Atlantic Ocean. That’s a pretty big freaking Broadcast domain.


Which really begs the question of a definition of a LAN anymore. does that really have a meaning? Is a Local Areal Network really spanning half way around the world? Does a LAN span around a city or state? What’s local now days?


It also calls into question something that Marion Evans and I talked about many times. He was always being factious but he would say “Let’s just make the whole world a big broadcast domain” He was implying about the poor design characteristics that were being employed on the pseudowire service that we were starting to roll out, looking ahead to the LAN service we were planning to roll out.



Probably not the best design practice, which is partially why I’ve always been of the opinion that at some point the WAN should pass through a router. I wouldn’t ever put a Switch on a VPLS. it really needs to make a Layer 3 hop so that some amount of Layer 3 intelligence can be used for directing the traffic as it leaves between a layer 2 domain and a Layer 3 domain.


Of course the question asker above could have been completely confused and not really understand the basic principles of the question they were asking? Technology is changing.

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838
2012-10-24 16:36:30
2012-10-24 23:36:30
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is this question valid?
A computer with a host IP address of 10.10.5.1 sends a data packet with a destination, IP address of 10.10.5.2. A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 is being used. Determine whet ...]]>


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http://vpls.us/?p=843 Thu, 01 Nov 2012 16:45:22 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=843



Juniper Networks reportedly for sale, shares in Sunnyvale company jump


I heard the rumor Monday, and then was checking around the web for more information. I’m trying to figure out if this is a tip and I should be buying JNPR shares or if this is just a rumor because of all the layoffs…

Juniper Networks shares jumped 11 percent Thursday after a news website said the Sunnyvale network gear maker had hired JP Morgan to evaluate possible bids, but a source close to the matter said there was no substance to the report.

Juniper’s shares jumped on Thursday morning as the benzinga.com report spread among investors, hitting a one-month high of $19.20 on the New York Stock Exchange before easing back to $18.

One bid is reported to be in the high $20s per share with data storage firm EMC mentioned recently as a potential buyer, benzinga.com reported late on Tuesday.

However, getting past the profit part of it (For me of course), would a EMC/JNPR merger make sense? Well with the recent development work that JNPR has done with the Qfabric, and EMC has recently certified the qfabric to work with their gear.



What does that mean? Well juniper is a 9 billion dollar company and EMC is a 53 Billion dollar company, or roughly 6times the size of JNPR. That’s not insignificant. They could buy them for the qfabric and spin the rest off as a small router company. Or they could keep the whole company, much as Brocade did when they purchased Foundry. That particular deal made a lot of sense, it gave brocade all the networking technology it needed and also let if have the cheaper data center switches without “partnering” with another networking company. If EMC had their own switching division. They might be able to go after total deals, rather than just going after the host and data services. They could go in with a complete soup to nuts solution with firewall and routing capabilities. That has to look attractive.


Well, shares look expensive today? $17.19
Maybe tomorrow.
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843
2012-11-01 09:45:22
2012-11-01 16:45:22
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Juniper Networks reportedly for sale, shares in Sunnyvale company jump

I heard the rumor Monday, and then was checking around the web for more information. I'm trying to figure out if this is a tip and I should be b ...]]>


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VPLS.US 10/08/2012 Juniper Qfabric

http://vpls.us/?p=810 Mon, 08 Oct 2012 02:31:33 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=810

it's viable for maybe 2 companies in the world....

A Juniper spokesperson declined to give specific information about the divisions to be affected by the layoffs, or when they will happen. In an emailed statement, the spokesperson wrote: “As we disclosed on our second quarter 2012 earnings conference call, Juniper is working to align its resources to improve productivity and effectiveness, enabling us to deliver our road-map for innovation and unprecedented value to customers and shareholders. As a result of this important initiative, we are reducing our workforce by approximately 500 people in functions across the company.”

Juniper also declined to address the QFabric rumor directly. “Innovation is the lifeblood of Juniper,” the Juniper spokesperson said. “We’ve consistently achieved the highest overall market growth in Ethernet switching, and customers continue to adopt QFabric. We are focused on delivering innovative solutions in the data center that drive revenue for customers.”

So corrections in the direction. It had to happen. If you only build a product and you build it so large nobody buys it, you cannot afford to continue to make it. I know they were coming out with smaller qfabric boxes and they have already hit the street, but I imagine you had a huge work force basically sitting around twitting their thumbs while the smaller boxes are just a subset of a larger box, probably not a lot to do, plus there wasn’t any revenue coming in while the smaller boxes were being built. A serious strategy error.]]>

810
2012-10-07 19:31:33
2012-10-08 02:31:33
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it's viable for maybe 2 companies in the world....

A Juniper spokesperson declined to give specific information about the divisions to be affecte ...]]>


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http://vpls.us/?p=821 Wed, 10 Oct 2012 20:42:02 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=821



Remember back in the 90s or so when Cisco’s IOS was stolen and just a few months later a brand new Chinese company came out with a box that had an IOS identical to Cisco’s? Well I do that was waway. WhaWhey was summarily sued and if I recall correctly they settled it out of court to the tune of several dollars I’m sure.

Several years ago I asked them in a meeting what they had done, and they basically avoided my question. I’m sure there are a lot of political and other type issues still around that case. They can probably never talk about it.

They told me about two years ago that if they didn’t have the feature in their software that I wanted, they would just assign another couple hundred programers on that task to create it for me. Talk about a mobile work force. Also talking about a huge workforce. I wonder how many programmers they have working for them now? Thousands.

I went over to Beijing two years ago with my wife. We landed at the airport and had a bus ride between the airport and the hotel. I’ve been in some large cities before, but I have never in my life experienced such a mass of humanity. We were literally passing large dorm like structures, mile after mile after mile. It was awesome in magnitude. A funny story. The wife and I got off the buss and were surrounded by taxi cabbies. All trying to grab our bags to drive us to our hotel. We finally picked one who charged us $20.00 None of the others would take our fare after they heard our hotel. After the bus left, we found out why, we were in front of the hotel. The cabbie put our bags into his trunk, drove down to the corner and into the driveway of the hotel That was the Imperial Palace. Yeah, I splurged it was a very nice place and we had the presidential suite. I had to impress my wife :) anyway, went to the great wall of china, and saw the Tiananmen square. And did the other typical tourist things. I have several other really good stories to share about that trip. Although I never made it past the huawei shop. I bet I walked past at least one of their programmers.

They have really shaken things up in the Telecom world. With the US goberment coming out and saying: “DONT USE HUAWEI” or something close to that, and then them responding saying. “YOU STINKING AMERICANS ARE CHINESE BASHING” well I’m paraphrasing of course on both accounts. Could the commie red Chinese put spying software backdoor in their gear? Maybe, Did they? Maybe? Does their gear phone home to give information? Probably does. However here is a thought. I think it was Google that was using GPS to track everyone of their phones. So, not only did Google have information on user and just about everything else imaginable, they also had an exact location of everyone. Wow. And the US government is bitching about a couple packets being sent home to mother china?

Well, what’s next for this saga? I imagine the U.S. Senate will recommend that all Huawei’s be summarily pulled out of any sort of production network. Boiled in oil until dead, burned at the stake and then whatever is left of them to be hung by the neck along the border until the buzzards eat whats left of them.

So who all us using Huiwai? They stood up and said. companies. Dozens of companies, and then mentioned a couple mobile operators. I guess Huawei has the second largest share of Cell phones in the world. Why? I guess it’s because they have a cheap plentiful workforce that’s willing to work for just a few Yuan a day.

So, are you using WaWay? Are you worried about the Chinese spying on your data?]]>

821
2012-10-10 13:42:02
2012-10-10 20:42:02
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http://vpls.us/?p=833 Fri, 12 Oct 2012 19:05:49 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=833



It’s like the ugly guy at school that nobody wants to dance with. Everybody says thay are a friend of the guy, but nobody will dance with him. Or like the last one in a cake walk. Two people fighting over one chair. It’s kind of funny really. Poor Huawei, nobody wants to dance. Or even admit they talk to you.

A Chinese telecommunications company considered a threat to U.S. national security was linked to an elite Chinese military cyberwarfare group, according to a House committee report made public Monday.

Information, including email messages, supplied to the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence reveals that the People’s Liberation Army cyberwarfare unit had sought research and development assistance from Huawei Technologies

Bill Gertz

here is the Full Report

I’ve read through most of the report and all I can say is wow. If I was a birther, I would have wished that the U.S. Government would have spent as much time investigating the propitarity of the candidates as what went into this report. They know almost everything there is to know about Mr. Ren.]]>

VPLS.US 09/30/2012 802.1ag for unix

http://vpls.us/?p=780 Sun, 30 Sep 2012 18:07:58 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=780

http://www.bortzmeyer.org/ethernet-oam.html

Of course it's in french. But if you translate it...

https://noc.sara.nl/nrg/dot1ag-utils/

bash-4.2# ethping -ieth1 -l7 -c5 00:00:5e:00:01:14
Sending CFM LBM to 00:00:5e:00:01:14
Request timeout for 1878795604
Request timeout for 1878795605
Request timeout for 1878795606
Request timeout for 1878795607
bash-4.2#

and a try with the trace


bash-4.2# ethtrace -i eth1 -l 7 00:09:3d:13:f2:a0
Sending CFM LTM probe to 00:09:3d:13:f2:a0
ttl 1: LTM with id 1925342007
no replies for LTM 1925342007
ttl 2: LTM with id 1925342008
no replies for LTM 1925342008
ttl 3: LTM with id 1925342009
no replies for LTM 1925342009
ttl 4: LTM with id 1925342010
no replies for LTM 1925342010
ttl 5: LTM with id 1925342011
no replies for LTM 1925342011
ttl 6: LTM with id 1925342012
no replies for LTM 1925342012
ttl 7: LTM with id 1925342013
no replies for LTM 1925342013
ttl 8: LTM with id 1925342014
no replies for LTM 1925342014
ttl 9: LTM with id 1925342015
no replies for LTM 1925342015

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780
2012-09-30 11:07:58
2012-09-30 18:07:58
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http://www.bortzmeyer.org/ethernet-oam.html

Of course it's in french. But if you translate it...

https://noc.sara.nl/nrg/dot1ag-utils/

bash-4.2# ethping -ieth1 -l7 -c5 00:00:5e:00:01:14
Sending CFM LBM to 00:00: ...]]>


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http://vpls.us/?p=786 Tue, 02 Oct 2012 18:16:20 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=786

#!/bin/bash
echo "setmac to $1"
numbers=(`echo $1 | tr ':' ' '`)
echo ${numbers[0]}

KEY=669955aa
numbers[0]=c0
numbers[1]=ff
numbers[2]=ee
numbers[3]=c0
numbers[4]=ff
numbers[5]=ee

ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x$KEY offset 0x7e value 0x${numbers[0]}
ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x$KEY offset 0x7f value 0x${numbers[1]}
ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x$KEY offset 0x80 value 0x${numbers[2]}
ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x$KEY offset 0x81 value 0x${numbers[3]}
ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x$KEY offset 0x82 value 0x${numbers[4]}
ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x$KEY offset 0x83 value 0x${numbers[5]}

echo ethtool -E eth0 magic 0x$KEY offset 0x83 value 0x${number[5]}

Had some problems finding the the magic, but after that it was all downhill

eth1: flags=4163  mtu 1500
        inet 10.45.21.205  netmask 255.255.254.0  broadcast 10.45.21.255
        inet6 fe80::c2ff:eeff:fec0:ffee  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20

        ether c0:ff:ee:c0:ff:ee  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 43102  bytes 8804897 (8.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 15  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 7729  bytes 1102903 (1.0 MiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device interrupt 16  

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786
2012-10-02 11:16:20
2012-10-02 18:16:20
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macs
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#!/bin/bash
echo "setmac to $1"
numbers=(`echo $1 | tr ':' ' '`)
echo ${numbers[0]}

KEY=669955aa
numbers[0]=c0
numbers[1]=ff
numbers[2]=ee
numbers[3]=c0
numbers ...]]>


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http://vpls.us/?p=792 Thu, 04 Oct 2012 18:17:52 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=792


RFC 2544 Applicability Statement: Use on Production Networks Considered Harmful

2544 is to be considered Harmful :) oh wow, so we've been using testing procedures that are to be considered harmful. Yeah, we knew all that :P We just haven't had many other options. The new Y.1564 standard that is out from the ITU-T is going to go a long way towards rectifying a lot of the problems of testing Ethernet in the last mile between the PE and CE. However, what is really a Gem is hidden in the back of that little document. Back in Appendix I. CBS and EBS test methodology. It describes the tests that are included to be preliminary or experimental, and for informational purposes only. I'm not sure why that is, perhaps the tests really aren't applicable to a real world test and probably more geared towards the testing of lab gear? I guess that would be my initial guess as to why they weren't included in the formal document. However for the lab. OH YEAH. This is cool. E.3 basically lets the tester, run tests against the hardware buffers to determine the buffer capacity.

Let me repeat that. E.3 allows a tester to test the buffer capacity of a circuit / interface / hardware / switch, etcetra.... Line item 4 on E.3 says to test EBS.

the transmitter turns off for the smallest amount of time necessary
to ensure that the B-e token bucket is full and has overflowed by an amount
equal to or greater than 2%(EBS). Then the transmitter bursts the largest
number of back-to back (minimum interframe gap) frames that will drawn down
the Be token bucket until the number of tokens is more than or equal to

Being the geek that I am, I was drooling when I read that. I've been burned by so many switch vendors that don't allocate enough buffer space to their small interfaces on a switch and the first time you try to send traffic from the core to the edge interface in that box, it' pukes, or more specifically just starts puking packets out of it's buffers, making customers call in and complain. The customers calling in and complaining is by far the worse.

The only draw back is that I have to ask the vendors if they support ITU-T 1564 SAM Appendix I
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VPLS.US 06/11/2011 Sync-E Synchronous Ethernet

http://vpls.us/?p=776 Wed, 11 Jul 2012 21:47:58 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=776

Extending Ethernet Beyond Best Effort

Hierarchy 1: Cesium Clock. I have a buddy over in the Netherlands that has a cesium Clock in his apartment :)

Hierarchy 2: At the next level of hierarchy is Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU) or Building Integrated Timing Supply (BITS)

Hierarchy 3: SDH / ATM hardware clocks.

Requirements for SyncE are outlined in the timing characteristics of synchronous Ethernet equipment clock (ITU G.8262/Y1362) specifications. These specifications are based on ITU-T G.813 specification for SDH clocks.
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776
2012-07-11 14:47:58
2012-07-11 21:47:58
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Hierarchy 1: Cesium Clock. I have a buddy over in the Netherlands that has a cesium Clock in his apartment :)

Hierarchy 2: At the next level of hierarchy is Synchronization Supply Unit (SSU) or Building Inte ...]]>

VPLS.US 06/26/2011 Active Ethernet Versus PON

http://vpls.us/?p=764 Sun, 26 Jun 2011 17:29:08 +0000 timc
http://vpls.us/?p=764

PON: basically a passive splitter 4 way that’s again split with an 8way. Giving you up to 32 ONTs. It’s shared. Kind of like the old 10base2. or 10base5 or arcnet :) Except it’s fiber rather than copper



PON Passive Optical Splitter

Active Ethernet :) well, you’ve been reading about it here for a couple years now. just a series of switches that bring it back to a router at some point. Over fiber it means you are basically limited by the optics you are using to the CE (The Home in the FTTH, or Premises on FTTP).

We ultimately rolled out some PON using Ciena down in Latin America. I didn’t have much to do with that installation, and am certainly glad it wasn’t me who had to make the call for using PON.

As near as I can tell, there doesn’t seem to be a serious amount of saved resources by going with PON. You still have to dig trenches… You still have to get entrance facility. As near as I can tell, all you save is power at the break out boxes…. Where PON is passive and doesn’t require power. The Ethernet requires electricity to power it’s repeaters.

Err not repeaters that was Hubs. :) 3 active repeaters between the user and the CE, but that’s copper. Oh, and you also save a bit of fiber, but having been in a company that laid a lot of fiber, I can tell you that the major expense of laying fiber isn’t the cost of the fiber. It’s the cost of getting the fiber into the ground that costs the most money. Putting more in the ground just gives you future expansion capabilities.

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